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2020 / 17 期

發布日期:2020/08/19

【中/英】回收玩家EP06|出國繼續做環保!當一個世界的「回收玩家」,原來國外這樣做分類

【中/英】回收玩家EP06|出國繼續做環保!當一個世界的「回收玩家」,原來國外這樣做分類

美國加州垃圾是由機械式垃圾車夾取直接倒入車中,每週一次。一般分為黑色(一般垃圾)、藍色(資源回收)及綠色(園藝雜草)三種,每戶每月支付20-50美元的垃圾處理費。(圖/林斯涵)

The wastes in California are picked up with a mechanical garbage truck and then be poured directly into this truck once a week. The wastes are divided into black (general waste), blue (recyclable) and green (garden weeds) and for that each household needs to pay $20-50 per month as waste disposal fees.

【EN】R-Walker#06: Keep eco-friendly when travelling abroad. Be an international “R-Walker” and get to know how wastes are sorted in other countries.

在臺灣,經常聽到外國人對臺灣垃圾車播放古典樂「給愛麗絲」而感到十分驚訝的故事,那是因為同樣的音樂,在國外令人想起的是可口童趣的「冰淇淋車」。相較於穿梭在大街小巷的臺灣垃圾車及資收車,其他國家倒垃圾的方式大多是將垃圾集中在指定區域,放入不同顏色的大桶子裡,等待垃圾處理公司來收取。

In Taiwan, we have often heard that many foreigners were surprised at the classical music "To Alice" played by the garbage trucks in Taiwan, because the same music will recall them of the "ice cream truck" in their countries and childhood. In comparison with the garbage and recycling trucks in Taiwan driving through the streets, in other countries, the garbage is mostly concentrated in designated areas, put into large bins with different colors and the waste disposal companies will come to collect it.

因此,在固定時間、提著垃圾、與鄰居們並肩等待、隨著古典旋律逐漸接近,這部映入眼簾的黃色垃圾車,便成為外國人津津樂道的臺灣經驗,知名Youtuber小貝的美國媽媽在體驗臺灣垃圾車的影片中分享:「這是一個非常適合跟鄰居一起聊天的時刻、很棒的社會活動;在美國是用三個很大的垃圾桶,每個禮拜一次把它推到路邊,垃圾車會來把垃圾桶抬起來,然後扔掉」。資源回收已經是全世界的人都在做的事,那究竟其他國家的資收分類,和我們有哪些一樣,哪些不一樣呢?本次回收玩家帶你瞭解各國資收項目,讓旅外的人們瞭解要如何進行分類,當個入境隨俗的世界「回收玩家」!

As a result, it has become a Taiwanese experience for foreigners to talk about that the people in Taiwan are carrying garbage waiting side by side with neighbors at the fixed time and a yellow garbage truck will be approaching with the classical melody. The well-known American Youtuber LoganDBeck’s mother has shared this experience in his video Taiwan Garbage Truck: "It's a great moment to chat with your neighbors and also a great social activity; in the USA, we use three large garbage bins for garbage and later the garbage trucks will pick them up to empty them.” Resource recycling has been a routine that people all over the world are doing; therefore, if you want to know which part about waste sorting is the same and which part is different between in Taiwan and other countries, this time we R-Walkers are going to let you know the recycling items in other countries so that people travelling abroad can become international "R-Walkers" who know how to sort their wastes as the native people do!

回收分類大不同,索取垃圾寶典第一要務 

Recycling and sorting are different from country to country so that what we need to do first is ask for a waste sorting brochure.

以臺北市資源回收摺頁為例,資源回收車每天都有指定的回收項目。

圖說:以臺北市資源回收摺頁為例,資源回收車每天都有指定的回收項目。(圖/臺北市政府)

Take the Taipei City Recycling Brochure as example, the recycling trucks collect only designated items by each day.

在臺灣,公共場所大多有「一般垃圾」及「資源回收」兩種垃圾桶並列,方便市民進行簡易的垃圾分類,但同時在不同場域亦有不同程度的資收分類。以臺北市的家戶垃圾為例,可以非為一般垃圾、立體類(小家電、紙容器、乾淨保麗龍)、平面類(乾淨舊衣、廢書廢紙)及其他類(廢燈管、廢電池、廚餘)等四大項,倒垃圾時也必須注意當天資源回收車指定收取的項目,才不會因為拿錯類別而白跑一趟。各縣市政府環保局都會印製資源回收摺頁或居家手冊,供民眾參考使用。

In Taiwan, there are mostly two kinds of garbage bins, "general garbage" and "recyclable" side by side in public places so that the citizens can simply sort their wastes. In addition to the simple waste sorting, there are different degrees of recycling and sorting from place to place. Let’s take household waste in Taipei City as example, where the wastes are divided into four categories: General Garbage, Solid Waste (small home appliances, paper-based packages, clean Styrofoam), Flat Waste (clean old clothes, used books and wastepaper) and Others (lightening tubes, batteries and food waste). Before bringing the garbage to the recycling truck, you had better check if the waste belongs to the item designated for recycling on that day to avoid that you carry the wrong one for recycling. The Department of Environmental Protection of each county and municipal will print recycling brochures or home recycling manual for the public to consult.

日本資源回收方式可依圖示簡易分為:三角形為寶特瓶、橢圓形為紙類、方形為塑膠類。

圖說:日本資源回收方式可依圖示簡易分為:三角形為寶特瓶、橢圓形為紙類、方形為塑膠類。(圖/林斯涵)

The waste sorting in Japan can be simply divided into the following symbols: the triangle for plastic bottles, the oval for paper and the square for plastic.

日本的公共空間則分為「鋁罐」、「寶特瓶」及「一般垃圾」或是「可燃」「不可燃」兩種,家庭垃圾則是分為「可燃垃圾」、「紙」、「塑膠」、「資源物」、「寶特瓶」、「特定品項」、「可埋垃圾」等七大類並搭配各種不同專用袋。相較於臺灣的一週資源回收摺頁,日本的資源回收細分程度已達「成冊」的境界並且需搭配「一年垃圾收集表」使用。

The wastes in the public places in Japan are divided into "aluminum cans" and PET bottles" and “general waste" or only two categories "burnable" and "unburnable". The household wastes are divided into seven categories: "burnable waste", "paper", "plastic", "resources", "PET bottles", "specific items" and "buriable garbage" and each category goes with its exclusive bag. Compared with the weekly recycling brochure in Taiwan, the resource recycling segmentation in Japan has been so detailed that it needs to be collected as a "book" and to be used together with the "Yearly Garbage Collection Table".

例如橫濱市垃圾寶典便提及:僅有一隻襪子屬於可燃物,若是兩隻,沒破還能左右腳搭配,那麼便可“升級”為舊衣料。因此在日本丟垃圾前務必確認包裝上的標誌,並詳閱當地的垃圾分類寶典,才不會因未依規定分類而被垃圾集中區拒收,甚至具名退回。

For example, it has been mentioned in the recycling brochure in Yokohama: "If there is only one sock, it belongs to burnable waste but if there are a pair and still not broken, they can be ‘upgraded’ to be ‘Used Clothes’."  Therefore, before discarding any garbage in Japan, you had better confirm the symbols on the package and read the local recycling brochure carefully to avoid that your garbage may be rejected or returned with your name on it by the garbage centralization area because you have not sorted it according to the sorting rules.

使用垃圾回收地下道前,更需仔細整理才能出發

Before using the underpass for recycling, people must carefully organize their wastes before putting them inside.
瑞典的瓶罐回收是藉由各超市設置的回收箱進行回收,每個瓶罐上面都有回收標價,將廢棄瓶罐投入後,機器列出明細,民眾即可向超市領取購買時所抵押的瓶罐費。機器藉由容器形狀及條碼辨識,因此,旅居國外時千萬不要把隨手一捏的習慣,帶出國喔!

圖說:瑞典的瓶罐回收是藉由各超市設置的回收箱進行回收,每個瓶罐上面都有回收標價,將廢棄瓶罐投入後,機器列出明細,民眾即可向超市領取購買時所抵押的瓶罐費。機器藉由容器形狀及條碼辨識,因此,旅居國外時千萬不要把隨手一捏的習慣,帶出國喔!(圖/shutterstock)

The cans and bottles are recycled through the recycling boxes in each supermarket in Sweden. Each bottle and can has a recycling price tag on it so that as it is put into the box, the machine will print out a piece of invoice, with which the customers can get back the mortgage from the supermarket which they paid as they bought this bottle before. These machines can identify the containers by their shapes and barcodes. Therefore, next time when you are travelling abroad, don't squeeze the bottle as you do in Taiwan!

全球回收率最高的瑞典,城市垃圾桶分為五大類,包括「無色玻璃」、「有色玻璃」、「塑膠瓶罐」、「紙類」及「一般垃圾」,並且為垃圾桶投入口重新設計,如將扔瓶罐的投入口設計成圓形小孔,扔硬紙盒和紙板的投入口設計成信封扁平狀,藉以提高亂丟垃圾的難度,也是另類的旅客防呆機制。家戶垃圾分類則增加為「可燃」、「不可燃」、「紙盒包裝」、「紙類」、「玻璃(有色/無色)」、「金屬製品」、「廚餘」、「廢燈管、電池」等。

Sweden has the highest recycling rate around the world, where there are five main categories of urban garbage bins: "colorless glass", "colored glass", "plastic bottles", "paper" and "general waste". And the input ports of which have been redesigned into a round hole for the “bottles” or into an envelope-like flat hole for cardboard box and cardboard so that the public will hardly throw the garbage into the wrong bins and also as an alternative idiot-proof mechanism for passengers. Household wastes are divided into to "combustible", "non-combustible", "paper packaging", "paper", "glass (colored/colorless)," "metal products", "food waste", "waste lamps, batteries" and so on.

1960年代瑞典開始推動「真空管道垃圾自動收集系統」處理居家垃圾,在地底下埋藏了大規模的垃圾運輸管線,地面上則分成了「廚餘」、「可燃燒」和「可回收」三個類別的垃圾桶,當這些在社區及街道上成群的垃圾搜集桶滿了,系統便會自動透過地下管線運送,將垃圾運到市郊外的垃圾處理廠,讓清運垃圾轉為地下化。

In the 1960s, Sweden began to promote the "Vacuum Garbage Pipe Auto Collection System" to dispose household wastes. Many large-scale garbage transport pipelines were buried underground and the garbage bins on the ground are divided into three categories: "food waste", "combustible" and "recyclable". Once these bins in the community or on the streets are full, the system will automatically transport the garbage through underground pipelines to the waste disposal plants on the outskirts of the city, which can turn the waste disposal under the ground.

為保護地球環境,世界各國都非常重視資源回收。各國政府除推廣回收分類外,亦透過不同的稅賦方式,降低國民的垃圾量,例如:瑞典按月依垃圾量課徵垃圾稅、法國則在地產稅內徵收垃圾處理稅、臺灣非隨袋徵收的地區則是隨水費徵收垃圾處理費等,都是建立在民眾會為了盡量降低這些支出,而自然而然地做好垃圾的分類,提升資源回收率,並且主動減少垃圾的數量。科學地進行資收分類,將資源有效的循環利用,不僅能夠提高廢棄物的價值,也能降低對環境的傷害,進而逐步達成垃圾全回收、零廢棄之目標。

In order to protect our only earth, countries all over the world have attached great importance to recycling and waste sorting. In addition to promoting recycling and waste sorting, many governments have also tried to reduce the amount of garbage through different taxation. For example, the Swedish government levies garbage tax monthly based on the amount of garbage. The French government levies garbage disposal tax in the property tax. In Taiwan, the garbage disposal fees will be levied with the water charges in the areas where the garbage bags are not additionally charged. All above are based on the intention that people want to minimize the expenditures so that they will naturally sort the wastes properly, which cannot only improve the recycling rate of resources but also reduce the amount of garbage proactively. If we can sort the wastes scientifically and recycle and reuse the resources effectively, we cannot only improve the value of the wastes, but also reduce the harm to the environment. In this way, the goal will be gradually achieved that all wastes can be recycled, and no waste is discarded.

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