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2020 / 1 期

發布日期:2020/01/08

【中/英】保險桿、排氣管…一身都是寶!妥善回收,讓報廢車輛重獲新生

【中/英】保險桿、排氣管…一身都是寶!妥善回收,讓報廢車輛重獲新生

圖說:當車輛壽命終結的那一天來臨,究竟該怎麼做,才能妥善回收,讓資源循環、重獲新生呢?(圖/環保署回收基管會)

When the life of a car has come to an end, what exactly should we do to recycle it properly, allowing the resources to be recirculated and reborn?

【EN】All parts of a car, including the bumper, exhaust pipe etc. are treasures! Properly recycle abandoned cars to give them a new life.

「食衣住行」是人類生活基本所需,而對於現代人來說,汽、機車正是不可或缺的交通工具。尤其是在臺灣,機車密度連年常居亞洲之冠,退役後的廢棄機動車輛,數目自然也相當驚人。一部機動車輛由上萬個零件組成,大至車殼、保險桿、排氣管、避震器、輪胎、椅墊、鉛蓄電池,小至車頭燈、電線、泡棉、冷媒、觸媒轉換器……都可以回收再利用,可說一身都是寶。但當車輛壽命終結的那一天來臨,究竟該怎麼做,才能妥善回收,讓資源循環、重獲新生呢?
“Food, clothing, housing, and transportation” are the basic needs of human life. For modern people, cars and motorcycles are indispensable means of transportation. The density of motorcycles in Taiwan in particular, ranks the highest in Asia year after year, and the number of abandoned motor vehicles after decommissioning is naturally quite alarming. A motor vehicle is composed of tens of thousands of parts, ranging from the big parts like the car outer body, bumpers, exhaust pipe, shock absorbers, tires, seat cushions, lead batteries, and small parts like headlights, wire, foam, refrigerant, catalyst converters, and many more. As all of these can be recycled and reused, so it can be said that all parts of a car are treasures. Nevertheless, when the life of a car has come to an end, what exactly should we do to recycle it properly, allowing the resources to be recirculated and reborn?

作為回收王國,臺灣光是2018年回收的廢棄汽、機車就超過113萬輛,回收率更是高達99.7%。從1998到2017年,總計回收約358萬輛汽車與624萬台機車,若將車頭車尾相連,總長度達36,482公里,可繞臺灣超過30圈,所創造的循環經濟能量不容小覷。

Famed as a Recycling Kingdom, Taiwan alone recycled more than960 thousand  abandoned cars and motorcycles in 2019, with a recovery rate of as high as 89.36%. From 1998 to 2018, a total of about4.4 million cars and7.61 million motorcycles were recycled. If we were to line up the front and rear of the cars together, it would stretch as far as 46,436 kilometers and circle around Taiwan more than 40 times. We should not underestimate the energy created by the circular economy.

一般而言,車齡5年以上的機動車輛就要定期驗車。若車輛行駛超過10幾年、不堪使用、無法通過驗車,或是超出法定排氣標準,就應該進行汰換了。2018年起陸續實施的新空污法,也預計將針對「高齡」的大型柴油車,以及較不環保的二行程機車加嚴標準。然而,機動車輛一定要經由報廢手續,才能正式宣告壽終正寢,可別隨便亂停在路邊喔!而且,車主主動申報繳廢汽、機車,還能夠申請獎勵金。

Generally, motor vehicles aged over five years should undergo regular inspections. If a car has already been driven over 10 years, cannot be driven anymore and cannot pass car inspections, or it exceeds the statutory exhaust standards, it should be replaced. The new air pollution law, which has been implemented successively since 2018, is expected to tighten the criteria for “old” large diesel trucks and less environmentally friendly two-stroke motorcycles. However, motor vehicles must complete the procedures for car body recycling and registration scrapping before they can be officially declared to be at the end of their life. Drivers are warned not to abandon their cars on the roadside arbitrarily! Moreover, car owners can apply for rewards if they proactively declare their abandoned cars and motorcycles.

根據環保署的獎勵制度,以車輛出廠年度計算,汽車車齡達10年以上(含10年)、機車車齡達7年以上(含7年),經完成回收程序後可申請獎勵金;廢汽車每輛為新臺幣1,000元,廢機車每輛為新臺幣300元。
According to the EPA Reward System, owners of cars aged 10 years or more (including 10 years) and motorcycles aged seven years or more (including seven years), based on the year of manufacture, can apply for incentive rewards after completing the recycling process. The reward for each abandoned car is NT$1,000, and for each motorcycle is NT$300.

車主可自行取下車牌,連同身份證、印鑑、牌照登記書及行照等證明文件,到監理站辦理車籍報廢後,遵循「回收二步驟」回收廢棄車輛,再透過線上系統申請獎勵金。回收廢車輛首先必須聯繫廠商前來拖吊車體,撥打環保署資源回收免付費專線「0800-085-717」或上資源回收網站,都可搜尋到合法回收商的名單,自行聯絡約定拖載時間。接下來,別忘了向回收商拿取「廢機動車輛回收管制聯單」,憑單申領獎勵金。
The car owner can remove the license plates and go to the supervision station for scrapping the car registration, along with relevant identification documents such as ID card, seal, license registration certificate, car license, etc., to recycle the scrap car following the “Two Recycling Steps,” and then apply for the reward through the online system. To recycle a scrap car, the car owner must first contact a vendor to tow the car, call the EPA’s free recycling hotline 0800-085-717, or search the list of legal recycling companies on the resource recycling website to arrange the towing time. Next, don’t forget to get the “Scrap Motor Vehicle Recycling Control Receipt” from the recycling company and claim the reward with the voucher.

圖說:資源回收業者拆解車輛。(圖/環保署回收基管會)
圖說:資源回收業者拆解車輛。(圖/環保署回收基管會)
Car dismantling by the recycling company

而報廢後的車輛,將進到回收處理廠,並劃分「零件回收」、「再生材質」兩大部分進行環保拆解工作。除了從安全氣囊、電瓶、輪胎到冷媒等一一拆卸,為了避免對環境造成污染,必須將所有的液體排放乾淨,包括汽油、潤滑油、冷卻液等;若是電動汽、機車,還需要移除車上裝載的電池組。
Upon entering a recycling plant, the scrap car is divided into two types of environmental dismantling work, “parts recycling” and “recovered materials.” To avoid environmental pollution, when dismantling the airbag, battery, tires, refrigerant, and other parts one by one, all liquids, including gasoline, lubricant, coolant, etc. must be drained off completely. For electric cars and motorcycles, the battery packs in them must also be removed.

零件回收的部分,主要包括引擎、方向盤、車燈、底盤、懸吊系統等零件,皆可取出重新使用。其次則是將車體重新分解為各種工業材料,再打造成不同產品;無法再利用的廢料如木材,則可作為輔助燃料等用途,減少對環境的衝擊。
For parts recovery, including the engine, steering wheel, lights, chassis, suspension system, and other parts, they can be removed and reused. Subsequently, the car body is re-dissembled into various industrial materials to be regenerated into different products. The waste materials that cannot be reused, such as wood, serve as auxiliary fuels to reduce the impact on the environment.

圖說:廢機動車輛在回收處理廠的粉碎機,分離出鐵。(圖/環保署回收基管會)
圖說:廢機動車輛在回收處理廠的粉碎機,分離出鐵。(圖/環保署回收基管會)
Iron is separated from scrap motor vehicles by the recycling plant crusher

回收處理廠通常會透過粉碎機敲碎車殼,壓縮成鐵塊,再進一步分離出輕質與重質的材料。廢塑膠、廢橡膠及廢泡棉屬於輕質材料,重質則包括鐵、銅、鋁等金屬。臺灣業者甚至與歐盟同步,引進最新科技打造的處理設備,持續優化回收再利用流程與比率。
A crusher in the recycling plant is used to shatter the car outer body, compress it into an iron block, and further separate the light and heavy materials. Waste plastic, waste rubber, and waste foam are classified as light materials, while iron, copper, aluminum, and other metals are heavy materials. Taiwanese companies have even coordinated with the European Union to build the processing equipment with the latest technology, and continuously optimize the recycling process and ratios.

其中玻璃、塑膠、金屬等皆有較大利用價值,例如汽機車坐墊中的泡棉塑料,就可以再製為環保地磚、坐墊、汽車冷氣靜電濾網等產品。又如保險桿中的塑膠,可熔解後再製成新的保險桿、內飾板或工具箱。此外,拆解下來的電池,還可以回收利用於儲能設備;皮革、布料、碳纖維等也都各有用途。甚至還有設計師將汽車零件應用於家具、藝術品的設計上,種種的創意發揮,都賦予廢棄機動車輛不凡的價值,促成資源永續的重要一環。
Therein, glass, plastic, metal, etc. all have a higher use-value. For example, foam plastic from the seat cushions of cars and motorcycles can be made into environmentally friendly floor tiles, cushions, car air-conditioning electrostatic filters, and other products. Also, the plastic in the bumpers can be melted down and made into new bumpers, interior trim panels, or toolboxes. Meanwhile, the dismantled batteries can also be recycled for energy storage equipment. The leather, cloth, carbon fibers, etc. also have their uses. Designers even use car parts on furniture and works of art. Various creative ideas have given extraordinary value to scrap motor vehicles, contributing as a vital part of sustainable resources.

延伸閱讀影音:【中/英】廢機動車輛回收處理有一套

 

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